Bailey


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The bailey or bailiff, from the Old French bailli, was a free man of importance for the lord of the manor.  He was the supervisor of the peasants who worked on the land.  The term was also later used as a public administator of a district.  The word baillie is still the common form for a chief magistrate or sheriff in Scotland.

The Middle English baille, meaning "the outer wall of a castle" and giving us the Old Bailey in London, provides a possible alternative derivation, one who lived by this outer wall.  And Bailey was and is also a place name in the Ribble valley in Lancashire.

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England.  Many of the early Baileys came from Wiltshire:
  • John Bailey of Cricklade was a verderer of Bradon forest from 1409 until his death in 1436.
  • a Bayley family was first recorded at Bradford Leigh in 1523.  They were to remain there as local gentry until the 1750’s.
  • the Bayley name also cropped up in the early/mid 1500’s at Trowbridge and later at Bromham and at Wingfield (where they were clothiers).
  • and John Bayley was a prosperous Salisbury merchant who became its mayor in 1577.
Other Tudor sightings of the Bayley name were in Shropshire (where William Bayllie was the sheriff of Shrewsbury in 1527), in Gloucestershire (at Wheatenhurst), and in Essex (at Woodford).

Bailey later became the preferred spelling and, by the 19th century, had spread widely across the whole country, with sizeable numbers in Yorkshire and Lancashire.  An early Yorkshire Bailey was Christopher Bayley, a weaver, who was born in Almondbury in 1530.
 

John Bayley founded what was to become Wrekin College in Wellington, Shropshire in 1880.  Telford in Shropshire was in fact the top area to find a Bailey in 1881; while in 1998 it was Stoke in nearby Staffordshire.


Scotland. 
The Scottish spelling has generally been and remained Baillie, rather than Bailey.

Baillies of Lamington in Lanarkshire have said that they have a descent from Scottish king John Balliol, but no linkage has been shown.  The first Baillie of this line, Sir William Baillie of Hoprig, was recorded in 1346 and he was granted the Lamington estate ten years later.  These Baillies were later staunch supporters of Mary, Queen of Scots.

There were Baillie offshoots at
Jerviswood and Mellerstain in Lanarkshire, at Monkton in Ayrshire, and also at Dochfour in the Highlands.  George Baillie from the Dochfour branch set off for the Caribbean in the 1780’s and became a slave merchant.  However, his business there collapsed in 1805.

A Baillie family acquired Polkemmet in West Lothian in 1620 and the house stayed with the family until the 1950's.

Ireland.  William Baillie of Ayrshire was granted lands in county Cavan in Ireland in 1610 as a result of the Ulster plantations.  He gave his name to the town of Baillieborough.  Meanwhile Alexander Baillie came to county Down in 1636 where he secured lands at Ringdufferin.  His descendants were resident at Ringdufferin House for the next two hundred years.

The Baily name also appeared in Ireland.  The progenitor was the Rev. Lewis Baily, born either in Scotland or in Wales.  His son Nicholas became an Irish landowner and MP for Newry.  Later Bailys established themselves in Wexford.

America.  There were early Baileys in Massachusetts.

New England.  Thomas Bayley from Wiltshire was an early settler in Weymouth, Massachusetts, arriving there in the 1630's.  A descendant Timothy Bailey purchased an island off Maine in 1750 which is now known as Bailey's Island.

Nearby at Pemaquid Point was where John Bayley had stepped ashore in 1635 with his two children the day before his ship, the Angel Gabriel, sank during a severe storm.  This John Bayley, a weaver and also from Wiltshire, made his home at Salisbury.  The land that he owned, originally called Bayley’s Neck, is now known as Point Shore. Descendants migrated to Connecticut and to Maine.


Richard and James Bailey were two brothers, probably from Yorkshire, who came to New England separately, but both settling in Rowley, Massachusetts: 
  • Richard arrived in 1638.  His son Joseph, a deacon, settled in Bradford in Essex county.  Later Baileys of this line had moved to New Hampshire by the Revolutionary War.  One account has them as shoemakers there, another as silversmiths.  
  • James came in 1640.  Jacob Bailey, born in Rowley in 1731, departed with his family for Nova Scotia in 1779. There he became the Anglican clergyman at Annapolis Royal and embarked on a writing career that was to make him one of the early literary figures of Canada.

Elsewhere.  Among the early Baileys in Virginia were four William Baileys recorded and one Nicholas Bailey.  All four of these Baileys were in the colony by 1620, although one of the William Baileys was killed by Indians in  1622.


An arrival from Wiltshire (from Bromham parish) was Joel Baily, a Quaker who crossed the Atlantic in 1682 on the Welcome with William Penn, the founder of Pennsylvania.  Joel also met his future wife Ann Short on the ship and they later settled in Chester county, Pennsylvania.

South Africa.  Thomas and Ann Bailey emigrated from Yorkshire to the Cape colony in the 1860’s.  Thomas became a successful businessman in Queenstown.  His son Abe grew rich from his various mining interests and was made a baronet in 1918. 

Sir Abe Bailey's second wife Mary was a pioneer female aviator in the 1920’s.  His son John by his first wife married Winston Churchill’s daughter Diana, but they were late divorced.  His son Derrick by his second wife was a decorated World War Two pilot and later a county cricketer with Essex
.

AustraliaWilliam Bailey from Staffordshire was transported to Australia on the Matilda in 1791.  On his release he bought land at St. Albans in NSW to farm.  His son Henry was known as the squire of Cedar Farm.  The original two-story cottage homestead there still stands.

John Bailey, a botanist in London, arrived in South Australia on the Buckinghamshire in 1838 and was the forebear of a remarkable family of Bailey botanists in Australia.  John had been appointed the Curator of the colony’s botanical gardens.  His son Frederick became the chief botanist of Queensland in 1881 and was a prolific writer about Queensland’s flora.  Frederick's son John returned to South Australia as Director of the Adelaide botanical gardens in 1917
.

Select Bailey Miscellany

If you would like to read more, click on the miscellany page for further stories and accounts:


Select Bailey Names

Nathan Bailey was the foremost English lexicographer before Samuel Johnson.
Sir Joseph Bailey was a pioneer of the iron industry in South Wales in the early 19th century.
Sir Abe Bailey was a South African diamond tycoon, financier and politician. 
Sir Donald Bailey was the English civil engineer who invented the Bailey bridge.
Beetle Bailey, begun in 1950 by Mort Walker, is the oldest comic strip in America still being produced.
David Bailey was the celebrated English photographer of the 1960's.
F Lee Bailey is a legendary defense attorney of many high profile trials in America.

Select Baileys Today
  • 111,000 in the UK (most numerous in Sussex)
  • 102,000 in America (most numerous in Texas)
  • 46,000 elsewhere (most numerous in Australia)

Select Surname List


Adams Ellis Johnson O'Connor
Scott
Allen Evans Jones O'Sullivan Shaw
Anderson Fisher
Kelly Parker Simpson
Bailey Foster Kennedy Perry Smith
Baker Fox King Peterson Stevens
Barnes Fraser 
Lee Phillips Stewart
Bell Graham Lewis Powell Taylor
Bennett Gray Marshall Price Thomas
Brown Green Martin Reed
Thompson
Butler       
Griffiths Mason      
Reynolds Turner
Campbell Hall McDonald Richards
Walker
Carter Hamilton Miller  Richardson Walsh
Chapman Harris Mitchell Roberts Ward
Clark Harrison
Moore Robertson Watson
Collins Henderson Morgan Robinson White
Cook Hill Morris Rogers Williams
Cooper Howard Murphy Ross Wilson
Cox Hughes Murray Russell Wood
Davis Jackson Nelson Ryan Wright
Edwards James O'Brien 
Sanders
Young

For other surnames check the surnames2 page where there are to be found the history and genealogy for more than 800 surnames.

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